The books in each section are presented roughly in the order in which they should probably be read, in my opinion, that is, from shorter, simpler, & foundational to longer, more difficult and complex, & comprehensive.
This is not intended to be a comprehensive list. There are many other excellent books on these topics. However, this particular collection of books provided me with the foundational elements of understanding I needed for evaluating companies, markets, economics and government, in addition to my training as an accountant prior to my investing career. My previous training provided me a solid foundation for the "fundamental" evaluation of companies and markets, and are necessary skills to "round out" what I call the "four legs of investing:"
Accounting and Financial Analysis
Technically, monetary theory is a part of economics. However, when dealing with markets and, especially, market reactions to government fiscal policy and central banking system machinations, monetary theory appears to me to be so important that I set it out as its own "leg." A lot of money can be lost or made while you're waiting for the "long term" trends to reassert themselves in the face of short- and intermediate-term changes by governments and central banks.
There are many fine books regarding Accounting and Financial Analysis. However, I wouldn't try recommend any books in this category, although learning these skills are every bit as important as any of the other "legs." Possible resources to get started would include your local college Accounting and Finance Department, as well as the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). AICPA resources would have to be considered advanced resources, however.
Sperandeo, Victor, Trader Vic - Methods of a Wall Street Master, John Wiley & Sons
Elder, Dr. Alexander, Trading for a Living, John Wiley & Sons
Rhea, Robert, The Dow Theory, Fraser Publishing Company
Russell, Richard, The Dow Theory Today, Fraser Publishing Company
Frost, A.J. and Prechter, Robert R. Jr., Elliott Wave Principle: Key to Market Behavior, New Classics Library
Hazlitt, Henry, Economics in One Lesson, Three Rivers Press
Ebeling, Richard (Editor), The Austrian Theory of the Trade Cycle and Other Essays, Ludwig von Mises Institute
Taylor, Thomas C., An Introduction to Austrian Economics, Ludwig von Mises Institute
Menger, Carl, Principles of Economics, Ludwig von Mises Institute (Treatise)
Hayek, F.A., The Road to Serfdom, The University of Chicago Press
Rothbard, Murray N., Man, Economy and State, Ludwig von Mises Institute (Treatise)
von Mises, Ludwig, The Theory of Money and Credit, Pacific Publishing Studio
von Mises, Ludwig, Human Action: A Treatise on Economics, Ludwig von Mises Institute
Bastiat, Frederic, The Bastiat Collection, Ludwig von Mises Institute (Includes The Law, listed below)
Bastiat, Frederic, The Law, Ludwig von Mises Institute
Rand, Ayn, Atlas Shrugged, Penguin Books
Sowell, Thomas, A Conflict of Visions: Ideoligical Origins of Political Struggles, Basic Books